I recently read about a 1941 publication concerning
Kemal Ataturk's conversation with General MacArthur when MacArthur visited Istanbul in 1931. In his diary MacArthur noted
that even before Hitler's rise to power in Germany Ataturk had prophesied that World War II would begin in Europe between
1941-1945. He also foresaw that the United States could not maintain its neutrality and that the first victor in Europe would
be Bolshevik Russia rather than England, France, or Germany. Everything happened exactly as he had prophesied.
Why is Turkey the only Muslim democracy in the Mideast?
How has Turkey's republic managed to survive for 80 years? That's not just a record for the Mideast. It's longer than any
comparably democratic regime in France, Belgium or Germany. European pretensions aside to its EU bid it is remarkable that
the republican form of government Kemal Attaturk imposed on the Turkish people in 1923 is still functioning. Fellow Muslims,
in all the Arab and Persian lands that surround them, are ruled by despots, and in all of them, fanaticism and terror run
There is little doubt, in my mind, that the ultimate
target in the recent terrorist attacks against the Jewish synagogues in Istanbul, beyond the ancient Turkish Jewish community
itself, was Kemal Ataturk, modern Turkey's founding father. Although many Jews were killed, in broader historic terms it was
Ataturk being assassinated. Who was Ataturk? Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, the founder of the Turkish Republic and its first President,
stands as a towering figure of the 20th Century. Among the great leaders of history, few leaders have achieved so much in
so short period, transformed the life of a nation as decisively, and given such profound inspiration to the world at large.
His achievements in Turkey are an enduring monument
to Atatürk. Emerging nations admire him as a pioneer of national liberation. The world honors his memory as a foremost peacemaker
who upheld the principles of humanism and the vision of a united humanity. Tributes have been offered to him through the decades
by such world statesmen as Lloyd George, Churchill, Roosevelt, Nehru, de Gaulle, Adenauer, Bourguiba, Nasser, Kennedy, and
“A White House statement, issued on the occasion
of "The Atatürk Centennial" in 1981, pays homage to him as "a great leader in times ofwar and peace". It is fitting that there
should be high praise for Atatürk, anextraordinary leader of modern times, who said in 1933: "I look to the world with an
open heart full of pure feelings and friendship".
“At the end of World War I, when the Ottoman
Empire was in the final stage of its long slide into corruption and ineptitude. After much vacillation, the last sultan backed
the losing side in the war, and the victors, after stripping Turkey of its empire, were about to carve up Anatolia itself:
to conquer and colonize her at last. It didn't happen because rebel Turkish forces led by Kemal Attaturk won a dramatic, come-from-behind
victory over the British at Gallipoli. And it was this same victorious Turkish officer and his young-Turk, military-intellectual
followers who deposed the last Sultan, declared Turkey a republic, and imposed a sweeping program of modernization, Westernization
and reform on their countrymen. They created a constitution too, to enshrine the two bedrock principles of their republic:
1) Turkey is one nation, indivisible, embracing all
its citizens equally, no matter their ancestry or religion;
2) Turkey is a secular republic in which religion and
the state occupy separate spheres. But the Turks did something more, something that strikes most Westerners as utterly incongruous:
they created an elected, civilian government, but they made the Turkish military the guardian of their constitution, giving
it the power to depose civilian rulers who violate its basic tenets, a power the military has exercised three times since
1950. All these military takeovers were brief and bloodless, and each time, the military voluntarily returned power to an
elected civilian government. The Turkish military is the great secret of Turkish democracy. It keeps Turkey democratic
by acting as a necessary limit on the potential excesses of popular majorities and the sometimes demagogic elected leaders
who represent them.
SDP> Turkey’s propositioned personality
ray: the 1st Ray (?) significantly, the military enforces the constitution. Esoteric Horoscope: The sun in Scorpio in the
5th House with the sign Cancer Rising. The soul Ray of Turkey, I think, or rather should say, I proposition to be the 5th
Ray of Science. Turkey, under Kemalism, simply stated, is the rendering of the rights to the nation and an attempt to reach
the level of the modern civilizations. Kemalism, in other words, is the westernization and modernization it requires for the
national soul of Turkey to experience a modern social life, to establish a secular state, and to govern with a positive science
SPEECH DELIVERED BY ATATURK ON THE TENTH ANNIVERSARY
OF THE FOUNDATION OF
"I must make it clear with due emphasis, that a historical
quality of the Turkish nation, which is an exalted human community, is its love for fine arts and progress in them. This is
why our national ideal is to constantly foster and promote, with all means and measures, our nation's excellent character,
its tireless industriousness, intelligence, devotion to science, love for fine arts and sense of national unity. Thus, we
should judge the measure of time not according to the lax mentality of past centuries, but in terms of the concepts of speed
and movement of our century. Compared to the past, we shall work harder. We shall perform greater tasks in a shorter time.
I have no doubt that we shall succeed in this, because the Turkish nation is of excellent character. The Turkish nation is
intelligent, because the Turkish nation is capable of overcoming difficulties of national unity, and because it holds the
torch of positive sciences. This ideal, which very well suits the Turkish nation, will enable it to succeed in performing
the civilized task falling on it in securing true peace for all mankind.”
S> I thought it might be exceptionally useful then
to briefly high light the life somewhat of Kemal Ataturk, a Pisces, born on (March 12th 1881), (some question of birthdate?)
a first ray disciple of Shamballa. To John F. Kennedy, he was "one of the great figures of our century", to Ronald Reagan,
"a towering figure". Prime Minister David Beri Gurion, a founder of Israel, said; "I know of no greater statesman. French
President Charles de Gaulle said: "He was the greatest achiever among all the world leaders, because he modernized his nation."
In 1934, Greek Prime Minister Venizelos, who nominated him for the Nobel Peace Prize, observed that "in the life of a nation
it is very seldom that changes to such a radical degree were carried out in such a short period of time ... these extraordinary
activities have earned him fame as 'a great man', in the full sense of the term." The Tibetan, from the esoteric viewpoint,
DK> “I would point out that Ataturk, the Turkish
dictator, within certain personality limitations of relatively negligible moment, made good use of first ray energy, and only
the testimony of future historical records will indicate fully how wisely, sanely and disinterestedly he used this type of
force for the attainment of first ray objectives. “
He goes on to say:
“There are disciples of Shamballa just as there
are disciples of the Hierarchy and this is a fact hitherto not recognized and never as yet referred to in the current writings
on occult subjects. It is wise and valuable to remember this. They are powerful, these disciples of Shamballa, headstrong
and often cruel; they impose their will and dictate their desires; they make mistakes but they are nevertheless true disciples
of Shamballa and are working out the Will of God as much as the disciples and Masters of the Hierarchy are working out the
Love of God. This is a hard saying for some of you but your failure to recognize this truth and to respond to it does not
affect the issue. It simply makes your individual lot and difficulties harder. [DN17]
S> “Attaturk went to such extreme length to
enforce the change as if the very existance of Turkey, its national honour and freedom depended on its successful implementation.
'The battle of hats' which took form of a violent, crusading operation was soaked in blood. "So serious did the rioting
become that a cruiser was ordered to Riza on the Black Sea coast, and elsewhere the independant tribunals went into action.
These broke up the rioters, and the hocotar who had inspired the people, were either hanged or forced under- ground"... Both
innocent and guilty suffered, and he neither condemned the Tribunals' hasty action nor hesitated in his drive to break the
people's will. "I am Turkey," he arrogantly said. "To destroy me is to destroy Turkey." Another biographer of Attaturk,
this time an Engilshmen. has the following remarks to offer on his mission as a revolutionary leader and a reformer. "First
he set out", he writes, "to finish the destruction he had started. He must cut Turkey from the corrupting past.
DK> The true first ray personality who works in
response to this Shamballa influence will have the ultimate good of the group deeply enshrined in his consciousness and heart;
he will think in terms of the whole and not in terms of the part. That is the thing which he will endeavor to impress upon
the racial consciousness. This may lead at times to ruthlessness and cruelty if the personality of the individual is not yet
controlled by soul impulse. Such cases can frequently be seen.
Ataturk> "Mankind is a single body and each nation
a part of that body. We must never say 'What does it matter to me if some part of the world is ailing?' If there is such an
illness, we must concern ourselves with it as though we were having that illness."
Ataturk> "There are two Mustafa Kemals. One the
flesh-and-blood Mustafa Kemal who now stands before you and who will pass away. The other is you, all of you here who will
go to the far corners of our land to spread the ideals which must be defended with your lives if necessary. I stand for the
nation's dreams, and my life's work is to make them come true."
DK> It might be apposite here to point out that
such first ray exponents of force are often misunderstood and hated. They may and often do misuse the energy available but
they also use it constructively within the desired limits of the immediate plan.
S> After World War I, Kurds hoped to create a homeland
from the wreckage of the Ottoman Empire, but those dreams vanished with the birth of the Turkish Republic in 1923. "The Father
of the Turks"--imposed a single identity on the multicultural population of Turkmans, Armenians, Assyrians, Kurds, and others.
Most minorities were forcibly assimilated; everyone became a Turk. Like the Armenians in 1908, many Kurds in 1923 hoped that
having supported the Turkish nationalist movement would bring them progress and a joint comity with the Turks. In 1924, however,
the very Kurdish language was outlawed. A bloody cycle of uprisings and repression followed. The Kurds in Shaykh Said's revolt
of 1925 and at Dersim in 1937, like the Armenians earlier at Musa Dagh, fought to defend their basic human dignity.
The volcano finally erupted in 1926 when the Kurdish
tribes in the mountains staged an open revolt against the Kemalist regime and all it stood for. Mustafa Kemal lost no time
taking action. Ruthlessly all Turkish Kurdistan was laid waste; villages were burned, animals and crops destroyed, women and
children raped and murdered. Forty-six of the Kurdish chiefs were sentenced to be publicly hanged. The last to die was Shaikh
Said, the leader. He turned to the executioner and said: "I have no hatred for you. You and your master, Mustafa Kemal, are
hateful to God! We shall settle our account before God on the Day of Judgment!"
Mustafa Kemal was now absolute Dictator. The Turkish
people accepted such anti-Islamic reforms as the banning of the fez and turban, compulsory wearing of Western clothing, the
Latin alphabet, the Christian calendar and Sunday as legal holiday, only at dagger's point. Thousands of ulema and those who
sympathized with them sacrificed their lives rather than submit to the destruction of all they held sacred. Nothing can be
further from the truth than the delusion that the Turkish people wanted any of this. The intensity of resistance can be imagined
from the fact that Ataturk imposed martial law nine times. So despised is this Dictator by millions of Turks, particularly
in the villages and small towns, that the mere mention of his name is cursed. In 1932 Mustafa Kemal decreed that every Turk
must adopt a family name as is customary in Europe and America. He chose for himself Ataturk which means "The Father of the
Turks". Six years later, his health completely ruined, he died of cirrhosis of the liver caused by alcoholism.
“The most difficult change in any society is
probably a language reform. Most nations never attempt it; those who do, usually prefer a gradual approach. Under Atatürk's
Leadership, Turkey undertook the modern world's swiftest and most extensive language reform. In 1928, when he decided that
the Arabic script, which had been used by the Turks for a thousand years, should be replaced with the Latin alphabet. He asked
the experts: " How long would it take ?" Most of them replied: " At least five years." " We shall do it," Atatürk said “in
“With abiding faith in the vital importance of
women in society, Atatürk launched many reforms to give Turkish women equal rights and opportunities. The new Civil Code,
adopted in 1926, abolished polygamy and recognized the equal rights of women in divorce, custody, and inheritance. The entire
educational system from the grade school to the university became coeducational. Atatürk greatly admired the support that
the national liberation struggle received from women and praised their many contributions: " In Turkish society, women have
not lagged behind men in science, scholarship, and culture. Perhaps they have even gone further ahead." He gave women the
same opportunities as men, including full political rights. In the mid-1930s, 18 women, among them a villager, were elected
to the national parliament. Later, Turkey had the world's first women supreme court justice.”
Our nation," he stated, " has crushed the enemy forces.
But to achieve independence we must observe the following rule: National sovereignty should be supported by financial independence.
The only power that will propel us to this goal is the economy. No matter how mighty they are, political and military victories
cannot endure unless they are crowned by economic triumphs."
With determination and vigor, Atatürk's Turkey undertook
agricultural expansion, industrial growth, and technological advancement. In mining, transportation, manufacturing, banking,
exports, social services, housing, communications, energy, mechanization, and other vital areas, many strides were taken.
Within the decade, the gross national product increased five-fold.
Turkey's economic development during Atatürk's Presidency
was impressive in absolute figures and in comparison to other countries. The synthesis that evolved at that time -state enterprises
and private initiative active in both industrial and agricultural growth- serves as the basis of the economic structure not
only for Turkey but also in dozen countries.
DK> “I would also like to state that the lot
of a first ray disciple is hard and difficult.”
S> His father, Ali Riza, twice failed in business,
sought escape from his miseries in alcohol and died of tuberculosis when Mustafa was only seven years old. His mother, Zubaida,
in strict Purdah and entirely illiterate, ruled the family. In contrast to her husband, she was a devout believer and a pious
Muslim. Like every other Turkish woman of her day, her entire life centered round her eldest son. With her deep religious
convictions, Zubaida wanted him to become a pious scholar.
When a child, we read, he fought tooth and nail against
any kind of authority (Uranus opposing his natal Sun) and was openly insolent and abusive to his teachers. He was arrogant
in the extreme in the presence of his fellow students and refused to join the other boys in their games that made him justifiably
unpopular. If he were interfered with in any way, he fought them, preferring to play alone. Twelve-year-old Mustafa persuaded
one of his father's friends to sponsor him with the military college authorities. He took the examination and passed as a
cadet. Here he found himself. He was so successful academically that one of his teachers bestowed upon him the name Kemal
which means in Arabic, "perfection." Because of his brilliance in mathematics and his military subjects, he was promoted to
a teaching position on the staff where he much enjoyed flaunting his authority. After obtaining the highest grades in his
final examinations, he graduated with honors in January 1905 with the rank of Captain.
I will confine ourselves here only to the reproduction
of a few extracts from his countryman and admirer, Irfan Orga who, in his famous biography of him, written in collaboration
with his wife, Margaret, observes: "In his college days he read a great deal. He was unsocial and unpopular and had few close
friends. He flew easily into temper. (Uranus in Virgo opposing the sun and Mercury in Pisces) In the classroom he was a model
student, self effacing, eager and intelligent. Sex drew him like a magnet." (Moon in Leo opposite Mars in Aquarius) "He sought
refuge in drink, for he had no God to console him and no belief in an after-life" (Neptune conjunct Venus in Taurus squaring
the Moon in Leo, i.e., Neptune T-square with mars in Aquarius)) "He felt at home with the prostitutes and the homosexuals
because they were so much off than he. The underlying sadism of his nature came out. (Moon, the ruler of the 5th house in
the 6th house in Leo opposing mars in the solar 12th house in Aquarius) He never credited people with feelings since he had
none himself save the fundamental urge to conquer and see others submit to his will. He had to be at the top. "In Montasir
he was introduced to the works of Voltaire and Rousseau (the great 3rd ray Initiate) and they appealed to Mustafa Kemal and
awoke the latent rebel."
“During the period these reforms were being enforced,
Mustafa Kemal Pasha married a beautiful, European-educated lady named Latifa who, during the struggle for Turkey's independence,
was encouraged by him to dress like a man and demand for women absolute equality. But the moment she grew self-assertive and
insisted upon being treated as a respectable wife instead of trampled upon like a door-mat in his unfaithfulness, he
furiously divorced her, and sent her away. After his divorce from Latifa, his shamelessness knew no limits. He drank so heavily
that he became a drunkard and a confirmed alcoholic. His behavior became so aggressive towards the wives and daughters of
his political supporters that they began sending their womenfolk as far as possible out of his reach. Venereal disease wrecked
In describing his character, H. G. Armstrong, author
of The Grey Wolf, writes:
"Mustafa Kemal Pasha had always been a lone man, a
solitary, playing a lone hand. He had trusted no one. He would not listen to opinions that were contrary to his own. He would
insult anyone who dared to disagree with him. He judged all actions by the meanest motives of self-interest. He was insanely
jealous. A clever or capable man was a danger to be got rid of. He was bitterly critical of any other man's ability. He took
a savage pleasure in tearing up the characters and sneering at the actions even of those who supported him. He rarely said
a kind or generous thing and then only with a qualification that was a sneer. He confided in no one. He had no intimates.
His friends were the evil little men who drank with him, pandered to his pleasures and fed his vanity. All the men of value,
the men who had stood beside him in the black days of the War for Liberation were against him. (pp. 213-214)
“And since no Dictator can tolerate any rivals,
Mustafa Kemal Pasha lost no opportunity crushing all political opposition. "The secret police did their work. By torture,
bastinado, by any means they liked, the police had to get enough evidence to incriminate the opposition leaders who were all
arrested. A Tribunal of Independence was nominated to try them. Without bothering about procedure or evidence, the court sentenced
them to be hanged. The death warrants were sent to Mustafa Kemal for his signature in his house at Khan Kaya. Among the death
warrants was one for Arif who, after a quarrel with Mustafa Kemal, had joined the opposition. Arif, his one friend, who had
stood loyal beside him throughout all the black days of the War for Independence-the only man to whom he had opened his heart
and shown himself intimately. One who was there reported that when he came to this warrant the Ghazi's gray mask of a face
never changed; he made no remark; he did not hesitate. He was smoking. He laid the cigarette across the edge of the ash-tray,
signed the death warrant of Arif as if it bad been some ordinary routine paper and passed on to the next.”
DK> I would also remind you that the use of first
ray energy inevitably means destruction in the early stages but fusion and blending in the later and final results. If you
study the nations of the world today from this angle, you will see this Shamballa energy of will working out potently through
the agency of certain great outstanding personalities.
S> Ataturk's Revolutions.
The Sultanete was abolished in 1922, November 1st.
Republic was declared in 1923, October 29th.
The Caliphship was abolished in 1924, March 3rd.
The hat as opposed to fez was introduced. (1925)
activities of religious sects were banned by law. ( 1925)
Western calender was introduced. ( 1925)
system was introduced. ( 1928)
The Metric system was introduced. ( 1931)
The nicknames and personal titles were abolished.
Religious attire was prohibited in public ( 1934).
According to this law, religious personalities, irrespective
of the religious groups they belong were not to wear religious attire in public but only in their sanctuaries. The surname
The modern secular system of jurisprudence is instead of religious law is integrated.( 1926)
of the women of Turkey by giving them political and social rights.
a) Rights brought with medeni kanun. ( 1926)
for women to be elected for the parliment.
Educational and Cultural Reformations.
Unity in Education ( 1924 )
Introduction and the
acceptance of the Roman alphabeth. ( 1928 )
The foundation of Turkish History Institution.
The foundation of Turkish
DK> The Lord of Shamballa in this time of urgency,
from love of the life aspect and from understanding of the Plan as well as from love of humanity, is sending forth this dynamic
energy. It is form destroying and brings death to those material forms and organized bodies which hinder the free expression
of the life of God, for they negate the new culture and render inactive the seeds of the coming civilization.
S> As regards the attitude of Attaturk towards religion,
particularly Islam: "He recognised that his real fight was against religion. Since childhood he had no use for God, an abstract
name wrapped in mystery and fallacy. He believed in what he could see. Islam had destroyed the past (he ignored the fact that
Islam had been the unifying force which built the vast Ottoman Empire) and had sunk people in a stultified , supertitious
morass. He despised the man who spread his hands at misfortune and declare, "It is the will of God. It is fate." He believed
that God was non-existent and that man shaped his own fate." "His hatred of Islam, of orthodoxy was intense.
The God he worshipped needed no confining chain, for
that God was everywhere, in the trees, the birds he loved to whistle, to the soldiers he illumined with his tenderness. Elaborating,
further on the contempt in which Attaturk held religion and religous men, the Orgas observe: "It was no secret that Mustafa
Kemal was irreligious and this started roumor that the Caliphate was soon to be abolished. The rumor snowballed when Mustafa
Kemal was discovered to throw a Koran at the sacred head of Sheikul Islam, a venerable gentlemen and a high priest of Islam."
"We must dress as a Civilized people", he told them. We must show that we are a great nation, and we must not allow the ignorant
of the other nations to laugh at our old fashioned dress. We must move with times"
The doctrines of Ataturk or Kemalism is a system of
thought based on the facts of Turkey. It is shaped with the will of the Turkish nation through a long historical background.
Above all, Kemalism is the introduction and the rendering of the rights to the nation. It is the expression of the national
sovereignity. It is an attempt to reach the level of the modern civilizations, it is westernization, modernization. It requires
to experience a modern social life, to establish a secular state, and to govern with a positive science mentality.
DK> From this display of energy, unthinking humanity
draws back in fear and likes it not. When full of personality hate and self-will, human beings seek often to turn this energy
to their own selfish ends. If human beings (even the best of them) were not so undeveloped and so superficial in their judgments
and their vision, they would be able to penetrate behind what is going on in the key countries in the world and see the gradual
emergence of new and better conditions, and the passing away of the loved, but slowly decaying forms. The energy of Shamballa
is, however, so new and so strange that it is hard for human beings to know it for what it is - the demonstration of the Will
of God in new and potent livingness.
S> Another biographer of Attaturk, this time an
Engilshmen. has the following remarks to offer on Ataturk’s mission as a revolutionary leader and a reformer. "First
he set out", he writes, "to finish the destruction he had started. he must cut Turkey from the corrupting past. Mustafa Kemal
Pasha's declared policy was to make Turkey within its natural frontiers a small, compact nation and, above all, a prosperous,
modern state respected by all the other nations of the world. He was so convinced that he and he alone was qualified to accomplish
this task that he claimed: "I am Turkey! To destroy me is to destroy Turkey!" The Grey Wolf, op.cit., p.227.
No sooner had he assumed power than he made bold to
declare that he would destroy every vestige of Islam in the life of the Turkish nation. Only when the authority of Islam was
utterly eliminated could Turkey "progress" into a respected, modern nation. He made speech after public speech fearlessly
and brazenly attacking Islam and all Islam stands for: "For nearly five hundred years, these rules and theories of an Arab
Shaikh and the interpretations of generations of lazy and good-for-nothing priests have decided the civil and criminal law
of Turkey. They have decided the form of the Constitution, the details of the lives of each Turk, his food, his hours of rising
and sleeping the shape of his clothes, the routine of the midwife who produced his children, what he learned in his schools,
his customs, his thoughts-even his most intimate habits. Islam-this theology of an immoral Arab-is a dead thing. Possibly
it might have suited tribes in the desert. It is no good for modern, progressive state. God's revelation! There is no God!
These are only the chains by which the priests and bad rulers bound the people down. A ruler who needs religion is a weaklings.
No weaklings should rule!" The Grey Wolf, pp. 199-200.
When Abdul Majid was elected as Khalifa, Mustafa Kemal
Pasha refused to allow the full traditional ceremony to be performed. When the Assembly met to discuss the matter, Mustafa
Kemal cut the debate short: "The Khalifa has no power or position except as a nominal figurehead." When Abdul Majid wrote
a petition for an increase in his allowance, Mustafa Kemal replied thus: "The Khalifate, your office is no more than an historical
relic. It has no justification for existence. It is a piece of impertinence that you should dare write to any of my secretaries!"
The Grey Wolf, op.cit., p.201.
On March 3, 1924, Mustafa Kemal presented a bill to
the Assembly to oust the Khalifate permanently and establish the Turkish nation as a purely secular state. However, before
this bill was even introduced and made known, he had prudently made certain to muzzle all opposition by declaring it a capital
offence to criticize anything he did.
"At all costs, the Republic must be maintained... The
Ottoman Empire was a crazy structure based upon broken religious foundations. The Khalifa and the remains of the House of
Usman must go. The antiquated religious courts and codes must be replaced by modern scientific civil law. The schools of the
priests must give way to secular Government schools. State and religion must be separated. The Republic of Turkey must finally
become a secular state." The Grey Wolf, pp.207-208.
Ataturk's Address to the Turkish Youth:
"Your first duty is to project and preserve the Turkish
independence and the Turkish Republic forever. This is the very foundation of your existence and your future. This foundation
is your most precious treasure. In the future, too, there may be malovelent people at home and abroad, who wish to deprive
you of this treasure. If some day you are compelled to defend your independence and your republic, you must not tarry to weigh
the possibilities and circumstances of the situation before taking up your duty. These possibilities and circumstances may
turn out to be extremely unfavorable. The enemies conspiring against your independence and your Republic may have behind them
a victory unprecedented in the annals of the world.
By violence and ruse, all the fortresses of your beloved
fatherland may be captured, all its shipyards occupied, all its armies dispersed and every part of the country invaved. And
sadder and graver than all these circumstances, those who hold power within the country may be in error, misguided and may
even be traitors. Furthermore, they may identify their personal interests with the political designs of the invaders. The
country may be impoverished, ruined and exhausted. You, the youth of Turkey's future, even in such circumstances, it is your
duty to save the Turkish independence and Republic. The strength you need is in your noble blood within your veins." Gazi
Mustafa Kemal Atatürk.
Stephen D Pugh. 13/12/03/